A Resource Centre for Humanities Related Research in Austria
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The data collection includes materials on six archaeological research projects in Carnuntum that were carried out between 2004 and 2021:
* GIS-analytical research on Roman land surveying in the Carnuntum area.
* Final evaluation of the excavations 1968-1977 in the Carnuntum legionary camp.
* Aerial archaeological studies of the camp suburb (canabae legionis) in Carnuntum.
* Geophysical measurements and their archaeological interpretation in Carnuntum.
* Systematic field surveys (grid survey) in the area of the canabae legionis.
* Archaeological research in the area of the suburbs of the Carnuntum civil city.
One of the basic prerequisites for the organisation and use of the urban hinterland in antiquity - as today - was the systematic surveying, mapping and recording of land ownership. The relics of Roman land surveying (limitation, centuriation) have been amazingly well preserved in today`s landscape, especially in the countries bordering the Mediterranean, so that in many places it has been possible to reconstruct Roman limitation on the basis of today`s land boundaries.
In 1976/1977, Manfred Kandler recognised in the surrounding area of the legionary camp and the Roman town of Carnuntum (Lower Austria) that the longitudinal axis of the oldest legionary camp is aligned with a large part of the parcel boundaries in the municipality of Bad Deutsch-Altenburg. Kandler attributed the connection between the orientation of the current parcel boundaries and the orientation of the camp to the Roman limitation of the area.
The main aim of the present study was to verify these connections with reference to Kandler`s hypotheses. A prerequisite for this was the definition of the ancient road and survey axes, whereby, due to problems of positional accuracy, less reliance was placed on the results of the (old) excavations than on remote sensing data (colour and B/W orthophotos). An interpretation of vegetation features showed that remnants of Roman roads in the Carnuntum area have partly been preserved in today`s traffic route network.
The vectorisation of the old cadastre (Franziszeischer Kataster 1819) carried out for the municipal area of Deutsch-Altenburg enabled a comparison with the parcel alignments on the current digital cadastral map (DKM). In order to be able to describe the parcel alignments with adequate statistical measures, methods used primarily in the environmental and earth sciences were adapted. The circular statistics methods intended for orientation data are used especially in photogeology for the evaluation of tectonic fault lines (lineaments, lineations). In Carnuntum, a visualisation of circular position and scatter parameters could be carried out, which allowed a spatially differentiated interpretation of the attribute expressions. This could be supported with graphical representations such as circular histograms and directional roses.
On the basis of the current DKM, a classification and visualisation of the plot alignments was carried out, which allowed a quantifying comparison with Kandler`s model. The settlement features in the canabae legionis immediately around the camp were visualised in a comparable way. The postulated centuriation system apparently did not play a role in the urban planning of the camp city, for here there is a significantly higher proportion of building lines aligned with other (more recent?) survey lines. This also applies to the civil town of Carnuntum.
Going beyond Kandler`s explanations, an attempt was made to reconstruct the limitation system. For this purpose, six models were defined, which differed in the choice of centuria side length (703 or 710 m), the location of the starting point of the ancient survey, and in the form of minor axis deviations. After buffering based on the survey axes and with the help of vector intersection functions, the proportions of model-compliant lineaments could be compared.
Publication: C. Gugl – R. Kastler (Hrsg.), Legionslager Carnuntum: Ausgrabungen 1968-1977, Der römische Limes in Österreich 45 (Wien 2007).
Content of the data collection: The data collection includes a PDF version of the publication.
Between 1968 and 1977, the former Limes Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, in cooperation with the Austrian Archaeological Institute, carried out excavations at the Carnuntum legionary camp (Bad Deutsch-Altenburg, Lower Austria). The Carnuntum legionary camp is of particular importance among the Roman military installations along the Danube Limes, as the construction history of the Carnuntum camp spans a period from the beginning of the Upper Pannonian Limes in late Tiberian-Claudian times to its end in the 5th century.
The first part of the work comprises the transparent presentation and analysis of the complex building sequence in the eastern praetentura, in which the main lines of development of the Carnuntum legionary camp can be discerned. A second focus was on the find material, whereby the aim was not to produce another overall find template, but to produce a question-specific template of stratified find contexts and selected material genres. This not only served to provide a solid basis for the chronological classification of the seven building periods, but also to shed light on further cultural-historical questions, such as the subsequent use of the camp area in the 9th/10th century and the related problems of settlement continuity from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.
Publication: C. Gugl - R. Kastler (eds.), Legionslager Carnuntum: Ausgrabungen 1968-1977, Der römische Limes in Österreich 45 (Vienna 2007).
Contents of the data collection: The data collection includes a PDF version of the publication.
Based on decades of systematic aerial archaeological work, a first overall plan of a Roman camp suburb (canabae legionis) could be drawn up. The air photo interpretation of the Carnuntum canabae legionis area carried out at the University of Vienna (Institute for Prehistory and Early History, Aerial Photo Archive) included the available excavation findings. This made it possible to discuss overarching questions about the settlement type "Roman camp suburb", which include the street system, building structures, economic facilities, sanctuaries and burial grounds. The aerial archaeological interpretation in Carnuntum shows in all clarity what can be achieved with this method alone. The detailed plans give for the first time a good idea of the size and structure of this type of settlement. They form a welcome basis for all further archaeological and monument conservation work in this area.
Publication: M. Doneus - C. Gugl - N. Doneus, Die Canabae von Carnuntum: Eine Modellstudie der Erforschung römischer Lagervorstädte. Von der Luftbildprospektion zur siedlungsarchäologischen Synthese, Der römische Limes in Österreich 47 (Vienna 2013), <http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:359>.
Contents of the data collection: The data collection includes the illustrations, plates, supplements and tables prepared for the publication.
The open, unspoilt landscape in and around Carnuntum offers ideal conditions for large-scale archaeological prospections, which have been carried out here over the last two decades. As part of a cooperation project between the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro), the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the province of Lower Austria (Museum Carnuntinum) and the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Institute for the Cultural History of Antiquity participated in the evaluation of the overall geophysical and aerial archaeological surveys in Carnuntum, which ran between 2012 and 2015. In the three years of the project from 2012-2015, all accessible areas in the Carnuntum region were geophysically prospected. In the end, an area of about 7.5 km² was investigated with magnetics and about 2.35 km² with ground penetrating radar. This is one of the largest archaeological prospection projects in the Roman world.
Content of the data collection: The data stored in the folder "2018-04-09_LBI-ArchPro_RESTRICTED" comprises the visualisations (georeferenced greyscale images) of the magnetic and ground penetrating radar measurements made in the course of the project (status of the processing of the measurement data: 2015). Also included is an archaeological interpretation of the measurement data in the form of GIS vector data (status: 2015).
The Carnuntum canabae legionis occupy a special position among Roman camp suburbs. Thanks to the intensified aerial archaeological evaluation in the area of the present-day municipalities of Petronell and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg (Lower Austria) from the 1990s onwards, a complete canabae plan was already available, which can be classified as singular among the Roman camp suburbs in terms of its richness of detail. In Volume I, the aerial archaeological mapping of the vegetation features was brought together with the known building features and interpreted. The discussion of settlement development, however, had to be limited to the excavations, most of which were only published in preliminary reports, to published graves and to single finds that could be localised and offered only selective information. With a large-scale surface survey (line walking), which was carried out in 2009 and 2010, it was possible to obtain further indications for the settlement expansion, for the settlement chronology and for the use of settlement zones in the Carnuntum camp suburb.
Publication: C. Gugl - S. Radbauer - M. Kronberger, Die Canabae von Carnuntum II: Archäologische und GIS-analytische Auswertung der Oberflächensurveys 2009-2010, Der römische Limes in Österreich 48 (Vienna 2015), <http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:609>.
Contents of the data collection: The data collection includes the figures and tables prepared for the publication.
The so-called Carnuntum civil town in the area of the present-day village of Petronell has many of the features that are characteristic of a Roman town complex. The settlement is bordered by a city wall, the course of which on the east, south and west sides is now well known through excavations and archaeological prospection. Outside the city, extensive suburbs developed along the arterial roads, which were neglected by researchers for a long time. A research project carried out between 2017 and 2021 with financial support from the province of Lower Austria was dedicated to two of these suburban areas: the western suburb in the Gstettenbreite area ("Westvicus") and the eastern suburb in the area north of the Auxiliary Fort (Petronell-Ost). The latter already lies at the interface between the civilian town (municipium Aelium or colonia Septimia) and the camp suburb (canabae legionis) in the municipal area of Bad Deutsch-Altenburg.
In these suburban zones, questions about the public infrastructure (course of roads, water supply) as well as general settlement morphological questions, such as the transition from the cemeteries to the settlement, can be investigated particularly well. Through a combined evaluation of prospection data and excavation results from the suburban areas, new insights were gained here into the development of Carnuntum, especially during the Roman Imperial period.
In the course of the project, a number of different archaeological sources - features and finds from older and more recent excavations and from emergency excavations, as well as the results of prospection projects - were evaluated:
* Emergency excavations and finds recoveries in 1976 and 1985 on the Gstettenbreite,
* Geophysical measurements 2012-2015 of the ArchPro Carnuntum project (cf. above: 2012-2015_ArchProCarnuntum),
* Excavations 2016 on the eastern outskirts of Petronell (Limesgasse),
* Surface survey 2017 on the Gstettenbreite,
* Excavations 2017 in the west of the Gstettenbreite fields.
C. Gugl – S. Radbauer – M. Wallner, Archäologische Prospektion 2012–2017 in der Flur Gstettenbreite – ein Beitrag zur Entwicklung vorstädtischer Siedlungszonen in Carnuntum, Carnuntum Jahrbuch 2018, 2019, 47–85.
C. Gugl – F. Humer – S. Radbauer – N. Schindel – M. Wallner – H. Zabehlicky, Archäologische Prospektion und Ausgrabungen in der Flur Gstettenbreite: Gräber und Straßenverläufe im westlichen Vorfeld der Carnuntiner Zivilstadt, Carnuntum Jahrbuch 2019, 2020, 11–53.
C. Gugl – S. Radbauer – M. Wallner – F. Humer – E. Pollhammer – W. Neubauer, Vor den Toren der Stadt – Struktur und Entwicklung des westlichen Suburbiums der Carnuntiner Zivilstadt. Neubewertung der Notgrabung 1976 aufgrund der geophysikalischen Messungen 2012–2015, Carnuntum Jahrbuch 2020, 2021, 37–84.
C. Gugl – S. Radbauer – I. Gaisbauer – M. Wallner, Mittelalterliche und frühneuzeitliche Befunde und Funde von der Flur Gstettenbreite: Evidenz für nachantike Siedlungstätigkeiten am westlichen Ortsrand von Petronell-Carnuntum, Carnuntum Jahrbuch 2020, 2021, 85–106.
Contents of the data collection: The data collection includes the illustrations and tables prepared for the publications. It also contains the finds database, a selection of GIS data as well as photos and drawings (scans) of the documented artefacts.